Distillation is considered to be one of the most cost-effective and reliable methods for chemical separation. The distillation process is a type of unit operation and is widely used in various industries. There are two main types of distillation equipment available in the market: on-site distillation equipment and modular distillation equipment. These are extensively used in various industries. Below is a list of industries supported by the aforementioned secondary distillation equipment.
- Chemical production
- Renewable fuel
- Food processing
Agricultural distillation is a chemical separation process that involves mass transfer separation and heat transfer separation methods.
Types of Chemical Separation Processes
When it comes to the separation process in distillation, there are two main types: single-stage separation process and multi-stage separation process. Before discussing further details about the specifications and design layout of distillation equipment, it is important to understand the basic differences between these two separation processes.
Single-Stage Separation Process
The single-stage separation process is similar to an evaporation process, also known as flash evaporation. It involves heating or boiling to remove volatile components from a solution.
Multi-Stage Separation Process
This process is also an evaporation process, but it consists of several stages. Sequential process design is followed in this process, which allows for more efficient methods and minimal waste.
The Basis of Distillation Equipment
Distillation is a chemical separation process based on the volatility of the components present in the solution. In order to achieve the distillation process, heat transfer is used to enable interaction between the liquid and vapor in the solution. This interaction occurs in a vertical column considering countercurrent flow. As mentioned earlier, the separation of components is based on their volatility, which is represented by the vapor pressure of the component.
Design Procedure of Distillation Equipment
Although each type of distillation equipment follows a different design pattern, there are some standard practices common to all types. Let’s take a look at these general steps:
- Evaluate the gas-liquid balance data.
- Calculate the required phase balance after evaluating the data.
- Determine the tray hydraulics.
- Select an appropriate tray to enhance the efficiency of the distillation process.
The Factors That Determine the Design of Distillation Equipment Are as Follows:
- High product purity
- Cost-effectiveness of the distillation process
- Capability to handle multi-component distillation process
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