As we know, the basic ingredients for beer are water, hops, yeast, and malt. Among these, yeast determines the type of beer fermentation and also the type of beer produced. There are two types of beer fermentation: top-fermented beers and bottom-fermented beers.
The Top-Fermented Beer
During the beer fermentation process, it is observed that yeast floats on top of the beer. Top-fermented beer follows the traditional fermentation process. This method became popular because it does not require strict temperature control. The fermentation temperature ranges from 15 to 25 ℃, and the fermentation time is relatively short. These requirements and advantages made it easier to achieve successful fermentation. However, it is worth noting that initially, hops were not added to the beer during brewing. It was only after some time that people discovered the use of hops to enhance the flavor of beer.
Top-fermented beers typically have a dark brown color and a strong taste. Examples of top-fermented beer styles include Ale, traditional bitter beer, stout, and porter.
Ale is a traditional British beer style. In addition to using top fermentation, the addition of hops is another characteristic of brewing Ale.
Traditional bitter beer is also a British-style dry ale beer, with its bitterness coming from hops.
Black beer, which comes in various varieties, is also brewed using the top-fermented method. It uses roasted malt with a concentration of 7% to 10% and has a higher hop content. The term “black” in black beer refers to black malt or roasted malt, with the darkness of the beer depending on the roasting time and temperature.
Porter beer is a type of wine. The traditional British porter beer dates back to the 18th century and is known as Porter Beer. During that time, the brewing process involved three main ingredients: barley, beer, and twopenny (a type of beer in Britain that cost two pennies per pint). This combination quickly became a popular drink in the UK. Most porter beers are dark black, with an alcohol content ranging from 5.0% to 7.0%.