Why Boil Wort?
The process of boiling wort serves several purposes:
- To evaporate excess water and achieve the desired concentration of wort;
- To dissolve and release hop flavors, bitterness, and aroma compounds through isomerization;
- To sterilize the wort and eliminate unwanted bacteria;
- To halt enzymatic processes and stabilize the components of the wort;
- To precipitate proteins.
How to Boil Wort?
The typical duration for wort boiling is about 70-90 minutes. Hops are added at three different stages:
- The first addition occurs approximately 10 minutes into boiling. This helps remove foam during boiling and prevents overflow from the manhole. Typically, 5%-10% of the total hops are added.
- The second addition takes place around 30-45 minutes into boiling. About 55%-60% of the total hops are added at this stage to extract α-acids and enhance isomerization.
- The final addition occurs roughly 10 minutes before the end of boiling. Approximately 30%-40% of the total hops are added to extract essential hop oils and increase aroma.
Key Components in Hops
- Polyphenols: React with proteins in the wort, causing protein flocculation.
- Hop Resin: Increases the bitterness of beer.
- Essential Oil of Hop: Enhances the aroma of beer.
Common Boiling Methods
- Steam heating kettle tun
- Steam heating jacketed kettle tun
- Internal heating kettle tun (heater vertically mounted in the tun)
- External heating kettle tun (heater installed on the outside of the boiling pot, with a wort pump between the heater and boiling pot. This method requires higher electricity usage and incurs greater costs.)