2-Row Pale Malt/Pilsner Malt
This malt typically comprises the largest portion of an all-grain recipe. It contains starch and is high in enzymes. Mashing is necessary to facilitate the reaction between the two components and produce soluble fermentable sugars. Pale malt is light in color and imparts a crisp malt flavor. It serves as the base for most light German styles. This malt has the lightest color and flavor. Pilsner malt usually requires a protein rest during mashing. Some varieties have low enzyme levels, which necessitate careful mashing.
6-Row Pale Malt
This malt is similar to 2-row, but it has higher enzyme levels, making it ideal for use with adjunct grains. It also has a higher protein content, which compensates for the lower protein levels found in rice or corn.
Munich and Vienna Malt
These European malts are kilned at slightly higher temperatures than pale malt, resulting in a darker and richer flavor. They are perfect for malt-forward beers like Bock and Oktoberfest. Both require mashing and contain enzymes, although at lower levels than pale malt.
These malts are typically made from “green” malt, but finished malt can also be used. The main purpose of these malts is to enhance color. They do not require soaking because further starch modification is undesirable. High temperatures well above the boiling point of water are used to achieve the desired color. Roasting drums, similar to those used for coffee beans, are filled half to three-quarters full with a malt charge. The drum is rotated to ensure even heating. The temperature is gradually increased from ambient to 170°C in 30 minutes. Aromatic substances and vapors are boiled off and removed, resulting in a loss of 3-6% of the malt charge by weight. The temperature is then raised to 215°C in the next 30 minutes and slowly increased to 200-225°C. Sampling is done frequently to ensure precise control over the process termination point. Temperatures are close to the ignition point, so vigilance is crucial to prevent combustion within the roaster. Once the termination point is reached, the malt is sprayed with water and the furnace is shut off. These malts can be added directly to the mash and are usually finely ground to maximize color extraction. Some brewers also use caramel and burnt sugar substrates for additional coloring.
Crystal malt adds body, flavor, and color to beer and can be used in various recipes. It has a darker color and a rich caramel taste. Most of the starch in crystal malt has already been converted into soluble and caramelized sugars, which allows for easy extraction with simple water steeping. This makes crystal malt particularly effective in extract batches of beer. Crystal malt also contributes a significant amount of protein, but excessive amounts can result in chill haze. To prepare crystal malt, it is heated until the husk becomes light brown and the grain’s interior turns brown. The finished regular malt is soaked in water for several hours and then gradually heated to approximately 78°C. It is held at this temperature for 1 to 2 hours and then slowly heated to the desired roasting level to develop flavors and colors. Temperatures usually do not exceed 95°C.
These malts have a light color but a complex starch content. During mashing, enzymes solubilize the dextrin into the mash. However, the dextrin remains unfermentable, resulting in a sweet, high final gravity beer, such as cream stout.
One of my favorites! This malt is kilned at a relatively high temperature, which produces a rich flavor and a dark color. The flavor and color are easily extracted through steeping, making it a key ingredient in easy-to-make porter recipes. Chocolate malt does not contribute much fermentable sugar.
Black Patent and Roast Barley
These two grains are kilned at very high temperatures and impart a strong roasted taste. If used excessively, they can become acrid. Both work well in extract batches, especially stouts.
Enjoy your drink, folks!