Potatoes, grains, and other wild plants serve as the raw materials. They are pressure-cooked to gelatinize starch into a liquid state, but it cannot be directly broken down by yeast for fermentation to produce alcohol. After preparing the gelatinized mash, a specific saccharifying agent must be added before fermentation. This agent converts the starch in the liquid state into sugar, which can be fermented by yeast. This process of converting starch into sugar is called saccharification.
Saccharification is a process that utilizes amylase or acid hydrolysis to convert starch into fermentable sugars. Common saccharifying agents used in alcohol production include malt and koji, with the latter being widely used in my country.
Under the action of alcoholic enzymes, glucose is hydrolyzed to produce ethanol, forming the fermentation broth. During the beer fermentation process, various microorganisms and aroma compounds are generated within the fermentation vessel and gradually penetrate deeply, thus becoming a rich natural source of fragrance.
The longer the fermentation period, the greater the number of microorganisms and aroma compounds, resulting in a stronger aroma of the red beer. Conversely, a newly established fermentation pit has fewer microorganisms and is inconsistent, and there are also unstable factors in metabolism, causing the freshly brewed beer to have a pronounced raw taste. Since an old fermentation pit has been used for a long time, it contributes to the continuous filtration and enrichment of microorganisms, resulting in improved and more fragrant beer. The longer it is used, the better the quality of the beer produced.
In ancient times, wine clarification technology was not advanced, resulting in wine being in a cloudy state, known as white wine or muddy wine.
The use of beer filters enables the production of transparent, clear, and stable beverages such as beer, wine, and rice wine, thereby enhancing the appearance of the finished product.
Beer is a food made from fruits and grains. It is rich in nutrients, including amino acids, proteins, vitamins, and oligosaccharides that are beneficial to the body. During the beer production and processing, bacteria in the air and containers are inevitable, and the beer itself produces a large number of yeasts and enzymes during fermentation. To ensure long-term storage of beer without degradation, proper sanitation is crucial.
Various sterilization methods exist, such as ultraviolet sterilization, heat sterilization, ozone sterilization, and membrane filtration sterilization. Currently, the rice beer industry mainly employs heat sterilization due to its affordability, simplicity, and excellent sterilization effect. Other methods can also achieve sterilization, but they come at a relatively high cost and may affect the taste and unique flavor of the beer.