The distillation equipment is used in the process of distilling alcohol to separate alcohol from water. Alcohol boils at a lower temperature than water, so when it is heated, the alcohol vaporizes first. When it cools down, the condensate contains a higher concentration of alcohol. The distillation process for alcohol formation involves the use of column distillers and tank distillers. In the production of alcoholic beverages, distillation is a crucial step after fermentation.
Distillation is not limited to the production of alcoholic beverages. It is also used in perfume making, oil production, and water purification. While the process of distilling alcohol is complicated, it follows a basic chemical principle. Ethanol, which is the alcohol in alcoholic beverages, has a lower boiling point than water. Therefore, when heated, ethanol evaporates first. This occurs because different liquids have different boiling points.
Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius, while ethanol boils at 78 degrees Celsius. As a result, during the heating process, water and ethanol separate from each other. Since the evaporation and condensation times for water and ethanol are different, liquid separation occurs. The collected liquid that condenses first will have a higher ethanol concentration compared to the initial mixture.
The distilled ethanol is collected in three stages known as the head, heart, and tail fractions. The head and tail fractions, which contain higher levels of impurities and toxins, are usually re-distilled. The final product obtained is known as spirits. Depending on the type of spirit being produced, further distillation processes such as tank distillation or tower distillation may be employed.
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